The First Peoples of Canada online resource looks at the difference between the Canadian government and Indigenous perspectives regarding treaty agreements. (Photo: A page from Treaty 4. Library and Archives Canada.)
Reginald Joseph Leach is a hockey player born in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Known as the “Riverton Rifle,” Leach is widely regarded as one of the premier goal scorers in the National Hockey League (NHL) during the 1970s. He played 13 seasons, including for the Boston Bruins, California Golden Seals, Philadelphia Flyers and Detroit Red Wings. He is best known for his time in Philadelphia, winning a Stanley Cup with the Flyers in 1975.
This education guide is a project of Historica Canada and includes teacher tips, historical timelines, and suggested activites for students. But it’s not just for teachers and students. Treaties in Canada is a great introduction for everyone.
Start understanding the impact of Canada’s residential school system by looking at the location of schools across the country. Some of the maps above include timelines and stories of survivors.
Harold Cardinal was elected chief of the Sucker Creek band in 1982-83 and was appointed vice-chief for the prairie region of the National Indian Brotherhood. Cardinal published the ‘Red Paper’ (titled Citizens Plus) that argued strongly against the assimilatory goals of the federal government’s White Paper (the Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy).
Harry Daniels was one of the founding members of the Saskatchewan Métis Society. He is most widely known as the man who negotiated the expressed inclusion of “Métis People” in the Canadian Constitution, thereby enshrining Métis rights in the constitution.
Walter Dieter was a Cree person of the Peepeekisis Indian Band in Saskatchewan. He was one of the founders of the National Indian Brotherhood and served as the first National Chief from 1968 to 1970.
Gabriel Dumont rose to political prominence in an age of declining buffalo herds and was concerned about the ongoing economic prosperity and political independence of his people. He is best known for his role in the 1885 North-West Resistance as a key Métis military commander and an ally of Louis Riel.
James Gladstone was Canada’s first Indigenous senator. He was president of the Indian Association of Alta (IAA) and three times was a delegate to Ottawa to discuss proposed changes in the Indian Act. He played a prominent part in the fight for better education, greater respect for treaty rights, and participation of Aboriginals in their own administration.
Elijah Harper was elected as a Member of the Legislative Assembly in Manitoba in 1981, in 1986 he was appointed to cabinet as Minister Without Portfolio Responsible for Native Affairs, and in 1987 was appointed as Minister of Northern Affairs. In 1990, while sitting as an opposition member in the Manitoba Legislature, he blocked the Canadian constitutional amendment known as the Meech Lake Accord due to a lack of participation of Indigenous peoples in the process.
Louis Riel led the Métis in two resistances during 1869-70 in Red River and in 1885 in the Saskatchewan District of the North-West Territories. He was instrumental in the creation of Manitoba as a province and is a centrally important figure in Métis history.
John Tootoosis was an influential First Nations leader in Saskatchewan. He was appointed chief of Poundmaker at the age of 20, and in 1959 he was elected as the first President of the Federation of Saskatchewan Indians.
“The KAIROS Blanket Exercise™ program is a unique, participatory history lesson – developed in collaboration with Indigenous Elders, knowledge keepers and educators – that fosters truth, understanding, respect and reconciliation among Indigenous and non-indigenous peoples.” Many local organizations now offer facilitation for this exercise. It’s an incredible learning experience to continue your journey of Reconciliation.
The National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation is the permanent home for all statements, documents, and other materials gathered by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Learn more about their work.
The centre created this video to explain their work keeping the issues of Truth and Reconciliation alive.
Send your kids to Indigenous summer camps, where kids learn about the people who lived on this land for thousands of years through traditional games, crafts, music, dancing, food, and outdoor activities.